..........FURTHER READING & INTERNET RESEARCH
.......................................USE OF FORCE:
........................................
Chapter Nine  

  .....For use with Fundamental Perspectives on International Law
..........6th ed. "(ed.)" refers to edited collections.All rights reserved.
.........................Subsection entries are arranged by title.     

§9.1 Defining "Force"
Accountability
R. Grant & R. Keohane, Accountability and Abuses of Power in World Politics, 99 AMER. POL. SCIENCE REV. 93 (2005)
G. Heathcote, Feminist Reflections on the Use of Force,
ASIL PROCEEDINGS (Wash., DC: ASIL, 2006)
W. Butler,
THE NON-USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (Dordrecht, Neth.: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989)
Robert Jervis,
THEORIES OF WAR IN AN ERA OF LEADING POWER PEACE: PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, AMER. POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, .....2001, 96 AMER. POL. SCI. REV. 1 (2002)
Forms
B. Saul,
DEFINING TERRORISM IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (Oxford, Eng: Oxford Univ. Press, 2009)
S. Chesterman,
FROM MERCENARIES TO MARKET: THE RISE AND REGULATION OF PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES (Oxford, Eng: Oxford Univ.
.....Press, 2009)
E. Corr & S. Sloan (eds.),
LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT: OLD THREATS IN A NEW WORLD (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992)
D. Gambetta,
MAKING SENSE OF SUICIDE MISSIONS (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2005)
B. Slantchev, Military Coercion in Interstate Crisis, 99
AMER. POL. SCI. REV. 533 (2005)
M. Kearney,
THE PROHIBITION OF PROPOGANDA FOR WAR IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (Oxford, Eng: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007)
General
J. Ciment (ed.),
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CONFLICTS SINCE WORLD WAR II (Sharpe Reference, 1999) (four volumes)
A. Rifat,
INTERNATIONAL AGGRESSION: A STUDY OF THE LEGAL CONCEPT: ITS DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW
.....(Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell Int'l, 1979)
B. Jankovic, International Conflicts, ch. 4, in
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW 347 (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Transnat'l Pub., 1984) (Balkan
......perspective)
S. Neff,
WAR AND THE LAW OF NATIONS: A GENERAL HISTORY (Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008)

§9.2 UN Principles on Force
Assessments
I. Johnstone, AFTERMATH OF THE GULF WAR: AN ASSESSMENT OF UN ACTION (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, (1994)
C. Gray,
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE USE OF FORCE (2d ed. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004)
A. Lowenfeld,
UNILATERAL SANCTIONS VERSUS COLLECTIVE SANCTIONS: AN AMERICAN'S PERCEPTION, ch. 5, in V. Gowlland-Debbas
.....(ed.),
UNITED NATIONS SANCTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 95 (Hague: Kluwer, 2004)
Self-defense
M. Buckley & R. Singh (ed.),
THE BUSH DOCTRINE AND THE WAR ON TERROISM: GLOBAL RESPONSES, GLOBAL CONSEQEUNCES (New
.... York, NY: Routledge-Cavendish, 2006)
R. Wolfrum,
THE ATTACK OF SEPTEMBER 11, 2001, THE WARS AGAINST THE TALIBAN AND IRAQ: IS THERE A NEED TO RECONSIDER
.....INTERNATIONAL LAW ON THE RECOURSE TO FORCE AND THE RULES IN ARMED CONFLICT?, in A. Bogdandy & R. Wolfrum (ed.), MAX PLANCK
.....YEARBOOK OF UNITED NATIONS LAW 1-78 (2004)
L. Damrosch & B. Oxman,
EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: AGORA: FUTURE IMPLICATIONS OF THE IRAQ CONFLICT, 97 AMER. J INT'L L 553 .....(2003)
J. Moore,
PANEL: THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION PREEMPTION DOCTRINE AND THE FUTURE OF WORLD ORDER, IN AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
.....INTERNATIONAL LAW, PROCEEDINGS OF THE 98TH ANNUAL MEETING 325 (Wash., DC ASIL, 2004)
S. Scott & R. Withana,
THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR FOREIGN POLICY DECISION-MAKING WHEN NATIONAL SECURITY IS AT
.....STAKE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, 3 CHINESE J. INT'L L. 163 (2004)
Y. Arai-Takahashi,
SHIFTING BOUNDARIES OF THE RIGHT OF SELF-DEFENCE-APPRAISING THE IMPACT OF THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS, 36
.....INT'L LAWYER 1081 (2002)
J. Yoo,
USING FORCE, 71 UNIV. CHI. L. REV. 729 (2004) 
R. Bzostek,
WHY NOT PRE-EMPT?: SECURITY, LAW, NORMS AND ANTICIPATORY MILITARY ACTIVITIES (Aldershot, UK: 2008)

§9.3 Peacekeeping Operations
General
H. Langholtz, B. Kondoch & A. Wells (ed.), INTERNATONAL PEACEKEEPING: VOLUME 12 (Leiden, Neth: Brill, 2008)
B. Kondoch & H. Langholtz (ed.), JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING (Leiden, Neth: Brill) (four issues/year)
M Smith & M. Dee, PEACEKEEPING IN EAST TIMOR: THE PATH TO INDEPEDENCE (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003)
H. McCoubrey & J. Morris, REGIONAL PREACEKEEPING IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA (Hague: Kluwer, 2000)
N. Azimi & C. Lin (ed.), UNITED NATIONS AS PEACEKEEPER AND NATION-BUILDER: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE--WHAT LIES AHEAD? (Leiden, ......Neth: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006)
R. Murphy, UN PEACEKEEPING IN LEBANON, SOMALIA AND KOSOVO: OPERATIONAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN PRACTICE (Cambridge, Eng:
.....Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005)
Special Problems
A. Gerson & N. Colleta, PRIVITZING PEACE: FROM CONFLICT TO SECURITY (Ardsley, NY: Transnat'l, 2002)
G. Knoops, THE PROSECUTION AND DEFENSE OF PEACEKEEPERS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW (Ardsley, NY: Transnat'l, 2004)
C. Aoi, C. de Coning & R. Thakur (ed.), UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (Tokyo: U.N. Univ. Press, 2007)
R. Murphy, United Nations Peacekeeping and the Use of Force--The Failure to Protect in Kosovo, ch. 4, in C. Laurin (ed.), 5
......BALTIC YEARBOOK OF INT'L LAW (2005)

§9.4 Multilateral Agreements
S. Croft (ed.),
THE CONVENTIONAL ARMED FORCES IN EUROPE TREATY: THE COLD WAR ENDGAME (Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth, 1994)
R. Powell,
CRISIS BARGAINING, ESCALATION AND MAD, 81 AMER. POL. SCI. REV. 717 (1987)
D. Paul (ed.),
DISARMAMENTS MISSION DIMENSION: A UN AGENCY TO ADMINISTER MULTILATERAL TREATIES (Toronto: S. Stevens, 1990)
D. Dahlitz & D. Dicke (eds.),
THE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT (New York: UN, 1991) (symposium)
.....
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO THE PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM (New York, NY: UN, .....2008)
D. Schindler & J. Toman (ed.),
THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT: A COLLECTION OF CONVENTIONS, RESOLUTIONS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS
.....(4th ed. Leiden, Neth.: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004)
S. Teifenbrun,
A SEMIOTIC APPROACH TO A LEGAL DEFINITION OF TERRORISM, SYMPOSIUM-THE CHALLENGE OF SEPTEMBER 11: .....INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE CONTROL OF VIOLENCE, 9 ILSA J. INT'L & COMP. L 357 (2003)
D. Bourantonis,
THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE QUEST FOR NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT (Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth, 1993)

§9.5 Humanitarian Intervention
P. Schraeder,
INTERVENTION IN THE 1990S: US FOREIGN POLICY IN THE THIRD WORLD (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Pub., 1992)
J. Moore (ed.),
HARD CHOICES: MORAL DILEMMAS IN HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998)
F. Teson,
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION: AN INQUIRY INTO LAW AND MORALITY (3d ed. Irvington, NY: Transnat'l, 2005)
J. Holzgrefe & R. Keohane (ed.),
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION: ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND POLITICAL DILEMMAS (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge
.....Univ. Press, 2003)
C. Stahn, ‘Jus ad bellum', ‘Jus in bello' ... ‘Jus post bellum'?–Rethinking the Conception of the Law of Armed Force, 17
EURO. J. INT'L
...... L.
881 (2006)
A. Kuperman,
THE LIMITS OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION: GENOCIDE IN RWANDA (Wash., DC: Brookings Inst., 2001)
S. Ranganathan, Reconceptualizing the boundaries of "humanitarian" assistance: "what's in a name" or "the importance of being ‘Earnest'"?,
.....40
JAMES MARSHAL L. REV. 195 (2006)
J. Janzekovic,
THE USE OF FORCE IN HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION: MORALITY AND PRACTICALITIES (Aldershot, Eng: Ashgate, 2006)

§9.6 Laws of War: Traditional Application
General Application
J. Henckaerts & L. Doswald-Beck (ed.),
CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, .....2005)
L. Green,
ESSAYS ON THE MODERN LAW OF WAR (2d ed. Ardsley, NY: Transnat'l, 1999)
M. Sassoil & A. Bouvier,
HOW DOES LAW PROTECT IN WAR? CASES, DOCUMENTS AND TEACHING MATERIALS ON CONTEMPORARY .....PRACTICE IN INTERNATONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW (Geneva: I.C.R.C., 2006) (two volumes)
R. Kolb & R. Hyde,
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF ARMED CONFLICTS (Oxford, Eng: Hart, 2008)
L. May,
AGGRESSION AND CRIMES AGAINST PEACE (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008)
G. Mettraux,
THE LAW OF COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY (Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009)
T. McCormack & G. Simpson,
THE LAW OF WAR CRIMES: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES (The Hague, Neth.: Kluwer Law .....Int'l, 1997)
J. Moore & R. Turner,
NATIONAL SECURITY LAW (2d ed. Durham, NC: Carolina, 2004)
Comment, Rhetoric without Results: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Concerning Rape During Armed Conflict, 28
PENN. ST. INT'L L.R. 83 (2009)
J. Morrow, When do States Follow the Laws of War?, 101
AMER. POL. SCI. REV. 559 (2007)
Specific Applications

W. Krutzsch & R. Trapp,
A COMMENTARY ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION (Dordrecht, Neth.: Martinus Nijhoff, 1994)
M. Osiel,
OBEYING ORDERS: ATROCITY, MILITARY DISCIPLINE & THE LAW OF WAR (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998)
N. Quenivet,
SEXUAL OFFENSES IN ARMED CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW (Ardsley, NY: Transnat'l, 2005)
M. Danner,
TORTURE AND THE TRUTH: AMERICA, ABU GRAHIB, AND THE WAR ON TERROR (New York: New York Review Books, 2004)
Major D. Moore, Department of the Army Pamphlet 27-50-434: Twenty-First Century Embedded Journalists: Lawful Targets?,
ARMY .....LAWYER (July, 2009)

§9.7 Laws of War: Post-9-11 US Application
Prosecution
Agora: The Military Commission Act of 2006, 101 AMER. J. INT'L L. 35-98 (2007 (four authors/articles)
K. Greenberg & J. Dratel, THE ENEMY COMBATANT PAPERS: AMERICAN JUSTICE, THE COURTS, AND THE WAR ON TERROR (Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009)
C. Geraty, ESSAYS ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND TERRORISM: COMPARATIVE APPROACHES TO CIVIL LIBERTIES IN ASIA, THE EU AND NORTH
.......AMERICA (London: Cameron May, 2008)
J. Paust, EXECUTIVE PLANS AND AUTHORIZATIONS TO VIOLATE INTERNATIONAL LAW, 43 COLUM. J. TRANSNAT'L L. 811 (2005)
J. Yoo, The Status of Soldiers And Terrorists Under The Geneva Conventions, 3 CHINESE J. INT'L L. 135 (2004) & J. Aggelen, A
.....Response to John C. Yoo, 4 CHINESE J. INT'L L. 167 (2005)
Symposium on Re-examining The Law of War, 56 CATHOLIC UNIV. L. REV. 745 (2007)
G. Aldrich, THE TALIBAN, AL QAEDA, AND THE DETERMINATION OF ILLEGAL COMBATANTS, 96 AMER. J. INT'L L. 891 (2002)
Wu, Edieth, Why private mercenary companies should be legitimized and allowed to enter the world stage. 43 NEW ENG. L. REV. 461-491 (2009).
Torture
J. Paust, Civil Liability of Bush, Cheney, et. al., for Torture, Cruel, inhuman, and degrading Treatment and Forced Disappearance, 42 CASE WESTERN RESERVE J. INT'L L. 359 (2009).
R . Dasgupta,. Constitutionality of Torture in a Ticking-Bomb Scenario: History, Compelling Governmental Interests, and Supreme Court Precedents, 30 PACE L. R EV. 544-619 (2010)
M. Scharf, International Law and the Torture Memos, 42 CASE WEST. L.REV. 321 (2010)
M. Lim, Redefining Torture in the Age of Terrorism: An Argument Against the Dilution of Human Rights, 13 WASH. & LEEE J.
...... CIVIL RIGHTS & SOCIAL JUSTICE
83 (2006)
Symposium: Security Detention, 41 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV. J. INT'L LAW 315--650 (2009)
G. Frankenberg, TORTURE AND TABOO: AN ESSAY COMPARING PARADIGMS OF ORGANIZED CRUELTY, LVI AMER. J. COMPARATIVE L..403
.... (2008)
K. Greenberg (ed.), THE TORTURE DEBATE IN AMERICA (Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005)
G. Kassimeris (ed.), WARRIOR'S DISHONOUR: BARBARITY, MORALITY AND TORTURE IN MODERN WARFARE (Aldershot, Eng: Ashgate,
.....2006)
Y. Ginbar, WHY NOT TORTURE TERROISTS?: MORAL, PRACTICAL, AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE 'TICKING BOMB' JUSTIFICATION FOR
........TORTURE (Oxford, Eng: Oxford Univ. Press, 2010)
J. Ku, The Wongheaded and Dangerous Campaign to Criminalize Good Faith Legal Advice, 42 CASE WEST. L.REV. 449 (2010)
Methodology

R. Wolfrum, THE ATTACK OF SEPTEMBER 11, 2001, THE WARS AGAINST THE TALIBAN AND IRAQ: IS THERE A NEED TO RECONSIDER
.....INTERNATIONAL LAW ON THE RECOURSE TO FORCE AND THE RULES IN ARMED CONFLICT?, in A. Bogdandy & R. Wolfrum (ed.), 3 MAX ......PLANCK YEARBOOK OF UNITED NATIONS LAW 1 (Leiden, Neth: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004)
R. Powell, Defending Against Terrorist Attacks with Limited Resources, 101 AMER. POL. SCI. REV. 527 (2007)
L. Fletcher & E. Stover, THE GUANTANAMO EFFECT: EXPSOING THE CONSEQUENCES OF U.S. DETENTION AND INTERROGATION PRACTICES
.....(Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press, 2009)
G. Fox, THE OCCUPATION OF IRAQ, 36 GEORGETOWN J. INTL L. 195-297 (2005)
J. Paust, Self-Defense Targetings of Non-State Actors and Permissibility of U.S. Use of Drones in Pakistan, 19 HOUSTON J.
.......TRANSNAT'L LAW & POLICY
___ (2010)
E. McWhinney, THE SEPTEMBER 11 TERRORIST ATTACKS AND THE INVASION OF IRAQ IN CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW: OPINIONS
.....ON THE EMERGING NEW WORLD ORDER SYSTEM (Leiden, Neth.: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004)
J. Gurule, UNFUNDING TERROR: THE LEGAL RESPONSE TO THE FINANCING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.,
.... 2009)
T. McDonnell, UNITED STATES, INTERNATIONAL LAW, AND THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM (London: Routledge, 2009)
H. Duffy, THE 'WAR ON TERROR' AND THE FRAMEWORK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005)
General
Symposium: After Guantanamo, 42 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV. J. INT'L LAW 1--542 + Annex (2010)

Additional Electronic Resources
Bibliography of US Government Documents Related to Iraq (City College of New York)
Electronic Legal Resources on International Terrorism (UN)
Guantánamo Testimonials Project (UC Davis)
Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (Harvard University restatement of existing international law applicable to air and missile warfare)
Infowar Monitor: Tracking Cyberpower (Canadian companies)
Interpol
The Interrogation Documents: Debating U.S. Policy and Methods (George Washington Law School National Security Archive)
Multilateral Arms Regulation and Disarmament Agreements
New York Times Guide to Memos on Torture
Project to Enforce the Geneva Conventions
Strategic Warfare In Cyberspace (MIT Press US Government Documents on Iraq) .....
Three Misconceptions About the Laws of War (Crimes of War Project Magazine, Oct. 29, 2004)
When War Begins: Misleading Statements by Presidents (Library of Congress--1846 Mexican War--2003 Iraw War)


..Last rev: 06/29/12