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Julie Greenberg

Julie Greenberg

Emeritus Faculty

J.D., University of Michigan, cum laude;

B.A., University of Michigan, cum laude

Professor Greenberg is an internationally recognized expert on the legal issues relating to gender, sex, sexual identity and sexual orientation. Her path-breaking work on gender identity has been cited by a number of state and federal courts, as well as courts in other countries. Her work has been quoted in hundreds of books and articles and she has been invited to speak at dozens of national and international conferences on the subject. Her recent book, Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters provides an invaluable description, analysis, and critique of how people with an intersex condition are treated under existing legal regimes and was the recipient of the 2013 Bullough Book award for the most distinguished book written for the professional sexological community.

Professor Greenberg joined the TJSL faculty in 1990 and was the Associate Dean for Faculty Development from 2003-2005. She serves on a number of nonprofit organizations’ boards of directors and has also been involved in a variety of community service projects relating to the rights of women and sexual minorities. Professor Greenberg’s work on behalf of LGBTI rights was recognized by the Tom Homann Association in 2006 when it presented her with the “Friend of the Community” award. She also was voted by her peers as one of San Diego’s Top Attorneys in Academics for 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014.

Courses include:

Business Associations, Sexuality, Gender & the Law, Women & the Law.


Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters (NYU Press, 2012)

Articles, Book Chapters, And Article-Length Works

The Legal Status of Intersex Persons in the United States, in The Legal Status of Intersex Persons: A Comparative International Analysis (Jens Scherpe ed., Intersentia, forthcoming 2017)

Law, Ethics, and Genital Cutting , in Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery: Interdisciplinary Analysis and Alternative Solutions (Lih-Mei Liao and Sarah Creighton ed., Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2017)

Legal, Ethical, and Human Rights Considerations for Physicians Treating Children with Atypical or Ambiguous Genitalia, 41 Seminars in Perinatology 252 (Ian Gross, Christopher Houk, and Peter Lee eds., 2017)

Unequal Protection for Sex and Gender Nonconformists, in CONTROVERSIES IN EQUAL PROTECTION CASES IN AMERICA 201 (Anne Richardson Oakes ed., Ashgate 2015)

Interacting with Individuals with an Intersex Condition in the Workplace, in Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace 46-1 (Christine Duffy ed., BNA 2014)

Health Care Issues Affecting People with an Intersex Condition or DSD: Sex or Disability Discrimination, 45 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 849 (2012), available at

Beyond the Binary: What Can Feminists Learn From Intersex and Transgender Jurisprudence?, 17 Mich. J. Gender & L. 13 (with Marybeth Herald and Mark Strasser, 2010)

Intersex: Practice, Theory and Activism (with Sarah M. Creighton, Katrina Roen, and Del LaGrace Volcano) in Intersex and After, 15 GLQ 249 (Iain Morland ed., Duke University Press 2009)

The Road Less Traveled: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Analysis of Binary Sex Categories, in Transgender Rights 51 (Paisley Currah, Richard M Juang, Shannon Minter eds., Univ. of Minnesota Press 2006)

Intersex and Intrasex Debates: Building Alliances to Challenge Sex Discrimination, 12 Cardozo J. of L. And Gender 99 (2006)

International Legal Developments Protecting the Autonomy Rights of Sexual Minorities, in Ethics and Intersex 87 (Sharon Systma ed., Spriger 2006)

You Can’t Take it With You: Constitutional Consequences of Interstate Gender Identity Rulings, 80 Wash. L. Rev. 819 (with Marybeth Herald) (2005)

When Is a Same-Sex Marriage Legal? Full Faith and Cr and Sex Determination, 38 Creighton L. Rev. 289 (2005)

Because of Sex, San Diego Lawyer, 50 (Nov./Dec. 2004)

Gender Nonconformity: A Comprehensive Theoretical Approach to Break Down the Maternal Wall and End Discrimination Against Gender Benders - Commentary on Keynote Speaker Joan Williams's "Beyond the Glass Ceiling," 26 T. Jefferson L. Rev. 37 (2003)

Legal Aspects of Gender Assignment, 13 Endocrinologist 276 (2003)

Definitional Dilemmas: Male or Female? Black or White? The Law's Failure to Recognize Intersexuals and Multiracials, in Gender Nonconformity, Race, and Sexuality: Charting the Connections 102 (Toni Lester, ed., Wisconsin Univ. Press, 2002)

What Do Scalia and Thomas Really Think About Sex? Title VII and Gender Nonconformity Discrimination: Protection for Transsexuals, Intersexuals, Gays, and Lesbians, 24 T. Jefferson L. Rev. 149 (2002)

Deconstructing Binary Race and Sex Categories: A Comparison of the Multiracial and Transgendered Experience, 39 San Diego L. Rev. 917 (2002)

When Is a Man a Man and When Is a Woman a Woman?, 52 Fla. L. Rev. 745 (2000)

Defining Male and Female: Intersexuality and the Collision Between Law and Biology, 41 Ariz. L. Rev. 265 (1999)

Reconceptualizing Preconception Torts, 64 Tenn. L. Rev. 315 (1997)

Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress: A Proposal for a Consistent Theory of Tort Recovery of Bystanders and Direct Victims, 19 Pepp. L. Rev. 1283 (1992)


Considering the Gains for LGBT Rights in Light of the Election, Thomas Jefferson School of Law 17th Annual Women and the Law Conference, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego (February 13, 2017)

International Legal Developments Affecting Sex and Gender Nonconformists, Osher Institute, UCSD, San Diego, CA (January 13, 2017)

Legal Aspects in the Care of Patients with a DSD, Pediatric Academic Societies, Baltimore, MD (May 13, 2016)

What Every Lawyer, Doctor and Hospital Need to Know, ABA Conference on Emerging Issues in Healthcare Law, San Diego, CA (February 13, 2016)

The Need for LGBT Employment Laws, Whittier Law School Conference on Employment Law, Bargaining Power, and the Gap , Whittier Law School , Costa Mesa, CA (November 7, 2014)

Advancing the Intersex (DSD) Movement Through the Courts, National LGBT Bar Association Lavender Law Conference, San Francisco, CA (August 24, 2013)

Plenary Speaker, Still to Come: Looking Forward to the Next 25 Years, National LGBT Bar Association Lavender Law Conference, San Francisco, CA (August 24, 2013)

Same-Sex Marriage: Recent Judicial and Legislative Developments, Osher Institute, UCSD, San Diego, CA (June 6, 2013)

The Intersex (DSD) Movement: Developing Legal and Extra-Legal Strategies, The National LGBT Bar Association Lavender Law Conference, Washington D.C. (August 24, 2012)

Current Issues in the Intersex Community, San Diego Psych-Law Society, San Diego, CA (July 27, 2012)

Legal Challenges Confronting the Intersex Community, The National LGBT Bar Association National Call-In, (April 5, 2012)
(Available at

Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters, Faculty Colloquium Series, University of New Mexico Law School, Albuquerque, NM (March 4, 2012)

Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters, Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, Los Angeles, CA (February 2, 2012)

Developing Legal Framework and Building Effective Alliances to Advance the Healthcare Needs of People with an Intersex Condition, LGBT Identity and the Law Conference, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, CA, October 21, 2011

Revisiting Disability Frameworks, National LGBT Conference, Hollywood, CA, September 2011

Same-Sex Marriage:  Past, Present, and Future, The Osher Institute at University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, August 4, 2010

Putting T Issues Front and Center, National LGBT Conference, Miami Beach, FL, August 2010

New Legal Strategies for Challenging the Medical Treatment of Children with an Intersex Condition, National LGBT Conference, Miami Beach, FL. August 2010

Transgender Legal Issues Through an Intersex Lens, Transgender Law Institute, Miami Beach, FL, August 2010

The Intersectionality of the Body, Fourth Annual UCLA Critical Race Studies Conference, Intersectionality: Challenging Theory, Reframing Politics, Transforming Movements, Los Angeles, CA, March 2010

Inside Insights into Transgender Law, Foothills Bar Association, January 11, 2010

Gender, Race and Athletics: Caster Semenya and the Politics of Sex Determination, John M. Langston Bar Association, Los Angeles, CA, Dec. 2010

Moderator, California Proposition 8: New Strategies for the Same-Sex Marriage Debate, San Diego Historical Society, July 30, 2009

To Add or Not to Add the "I" to GLBTQ: What does it mean to the Intersex Community?, The Global Arc of Justice: Sexual Orientation Around the World, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, March 13, 2009

Rhetoric and Relevance: An Investigation into the Present and Future of Feminist Legal Theory, University of Michigan Law School, Feb. 13, 2009

Incorporating Intersexuality Issues into the Law School Curriculum, American Association of Law Schools Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Jan 7, 2009

Sister State Recognition of Sex Determination Rulings, National Transgender Roundtable, Washington, DC, Dec 12, 2008

Pleary Session Moderator, Legal Issues Facing the LGBT Community 2008-2012, Lavender Law Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008

Intersex Infants and Elective Genitoplasty: Issues of Consent, Lavender Law Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008

Speech in the Culture Wars, Lavender Law Conference, Chicago, IL, Sept. 2007

Dismantling or De-emphasizing Gender?: The Radical (or not) Agenda of the Transgender Rights Movement, Lavender Law Conference, Chicago, IL, Sept. 2007

Sex Matters, University of Keele, Keele, England, June 2007

Feminist and Queer Social Justice Movements, Kent University, Canterbury, England, May 2007

Cutting-Edge Sex Discrimination Issues: Inside Insights into Transgender Law, San Diego County Bar Association, San Diego, CA, Dec. 2006

Intersexuality and the Law, American Association of Law Schools Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., Jan. 2006

FAIR v. Rumsfeld and the Constitutionality of the Solomon Amendment, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA, Nov. 2005

Plenary Speaker: Marriage, Civil Unions, Domestic Partnerships and Other Family Structures in a Mobile Society, Lavender Law Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 2005

Intersex Legal Issues, Lavender Law Conference, San Diego, CA, Oct. 2005

International Legal Developments Protecting the Autonomy Rights of Sexual Minorities, Nice Law School, Nice, France, July 2005

International Developments in the Medical Management of Intersexuality and the Doctrine of Informed Consent, XXIX International Congress on Law and Mental Health, Paris, France, July 2005

Keynote Address, Intersex and Intrasex Debates: Building Alliances to Challenge Sex Discrimination, Cardozo Law School, New York, N.Y. Feb. 2005

Transglobal Transformation Through Transgender Theory, Fifth Annual Women and the Law Conference: The Global Impact of Feminist Legal Theory, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA, Feb. 2005

You Can’t Take it with You: Constitutional Limitations on Interstate Identity Rulings, The Williams Project and UCLA Faculty Colloquium, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 2004

When is a Same-Sex Marriage Legal?, The Implications of Lawrence and Goodridge for Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage and for the Validity of DOMA Conference, Catholic University, Washington, D.C., May 2004

Sex Determinations and Same Sex Marriages: Will They Be Entitled to Full Faith and Cr?, Law and Society Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, May 2004

Beyond Equality and Liberty: Full Faith and Cr and DOMA Applied to Same Sex Marriages and Sexual Identity, Law and Society Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, May 2004

Same-sex Marriage: What is Missing from the Debate?, University of San Diego, Department of Sociology, University of San Diego, Mar. 2004

The Thomas Jefferson School of Law faculty is highly prolific in the field of legal scholarship and our professors are in demand as speakers and panelists at legal events in the U.S. and abroad.